17 sperm whales die after becoming disoriented in the North Sea… that also happens to have 1600+ offshore wind turbines

Five sperm whales have washed up on beaches in Lincolnshire and Norfolk. They are thought to belong to the same all-male pod as 12 others that were found dead around the Netherlands and Germany last week. Read more



Impacts of Noise from Wind Farm Construction and Installation on Large Whales A Brief Summary“, by Karen Stamieszkin, Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies
“Wind turbine operation also creates noise that may affect right whales and other cetaceans. Noise from operating turbines can reach a marine mammal through an initially waterborne, airborne, or substrate- borne path. Aerodynamic vibrations caused by the rotating blades travels through the air before reaching the water and then the animal. Vibrations from the structure itself will enter the water directly. Vibrations from the nacelle (the housing for the energy generating components of the turbine) will depend upon mechanical refinement and construction, and will transmit down the structure, becoming waterborne noise, as well as through the air. Vibration from this source may increase over time as the mechanical components wear. Vibrations transmitting from the base of the turbine must propagate through sediment before becoming waterborne; therefore these noise levels also depend upon substrate composition. Generally, sounds produced from operating turbines are harmonics of the rotational frequency of the blades (Nedwell & Howell 2004).”

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List of Offshore Wind Developments in the North Sea

beached whale

From Wind Turbine Syndrome:

1,600 wind turbines for Lake Ontario – The “Saudi Arabia of Wind”

offshore_windLondon Free Press, John Miner
It’s been called the “Saudi Arabia of wind” — not an oil-soaked desert, but a breezy lake on Ontario’s American border. Now, an Ohio group is moving ahead with plans to harness Lake Erie’s strong gusts, in sharp contrast to neighbouring Ontario that slapped a moratorium on wind farms in all its Great Lakes amid a public backlash to the spectre of the highrise-sized turbines along its shorelines.

The Icebreaker, as it’s been dubbed, will be a small demonstration project with six wind turbines in Erie, about 10 kilometres northeast of Cleveland. It would be North America’s first freshwater wind farm, with construction starting in 2018. But the project’s backers have visions of wringing much more electrical power out of Erie, saying more than 1,000 industrial wind turbines could be built along the shore of Ohio, a small state without the huge land mass for giant wind farms found in places like Ontario, Texas and Iowa.

Together, all that juice would add up to nearly double the output of Ontario’s inland wind farms, most of which are located in Southwestern Ontario. “We are definitely going forward — all system are go,” said Dave Karpinski, vice-president of operations for a consortium behind the project, the Lake Erie Energy Development Corp. (LEEDCo). Read article

Offshore Turbines Concern Lake Huron Coastal Conservationist

offshore 1By Bob Montgomery , Blackburn News
The Lake Huron Centre for Coastal Conservation is concerned with the province’s renewed interest in off-shore wind farms. There’s been a moratorium on off-shore wind turbines for several years, but the province recently re-opened the discussion.

Coastal Resources Manager Geoff Peach points out there are serious engineering challenges in putting turbines in deep water and fastening them to the lake bottom. They would have to withstand extreme wind and wave conditions, and shifting ice in the winter. Peach adds there are serious environmental issues if any of the turbines break down because of the petroleum products inside the turbines that could leak into the water. Peach also points out when the transmission lines are brought on-shore, that will create more disruption to what in many cases is a sensitive shoreline eco-system.

CAPE wants “far-offshore” wind projects (and “near-onshore?”)

Gideon Forman has no medical background.  He has a degree in Philosophy.

Gideon Forman has no medical background. He has a degree in Philosophy.

John Miner, London Free Press
Ontario will miss a huge opportunity to create jobs and protect the environment if it doesn’t embrace building wind farms in the Great Lakes, an environmental group is arguing. The Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment is calling for construction of “far-offshore” wind farms that will be out of sight and out of hearing distance of the mainland.

The group, which represents 6,000 doctors and members of the public, estimates offshore wind farms would generate a minimum of $10 billion of investment from the private sector. Gideon Forman, the group’s executive director, said the U.S. is looking seriously at offshore wind farms in the Great Lakes.

“It would be a shame to let that technology-driven leadership opportunity pass Ontarians by,” Forman said. Ontario put a moratorium on offshore wind farms in the run up to the 2011 provincial election. Read article

Ontario government running two analyses despite vow not to put more turbines in lakes

offshore_windLondon Free Press, John Miner
The Ontario government is launching two studies into putting wind farms in waterways, but maintains there are no plans to drop its moratorium on offshore wind-energy development. “Ontario will not proceed with offshore wind projects until enough scientific evidence exists to demonstrate that any future proposals can be developed in a way that is protective of both human health and the environment,” a spokesperson for the Ontario Environment Ministry said Monday.

Friday, the province invited bids on a study of the noise impact of offshore wind farms. It’s also seeking experts to study the requirements for decommissioning offshore wind farms. “These studies will help inform any future decisions on offshore wind development in Ontario,” Kate Jordan of the Ontario Environment Ministry wrote in an e-mail.

In the run-up to the 2011 Ontario election, the McGuinty government placed a moratorium on offshore wind farms, mostly planned for Lakes Huron and Ontario. Critics claimed it was a crass political move to save Liberal ridings in the face of a public backlash against unsightly wind farms in view of waterfront properties. The government maintained it made the move because there wasn’t enough scientific evidence on wind farms in fresh-water lakes. The moratorium triggered a $2.25-billion lawsuit against the government by Trillium Power Wind Corp., which had plans to build an offshore wind farm near Kingston. A lower court threw the lawsuit out, but it was reinstated in November 2013 by the Ontario Court of Appeal. Read article

Wind power firm sues Ontario for $500 million

07-14-09-lawsuit-largeThe Star
The developer of a proposed off-shore wind farm has re-filed a lawsuit against the Ontario government, seeking $500 million in damages for “malfeasance in public office.” Trillium Power Wind Corp. was planning a wind farm of up to 600 megawatts in Lake Ontario near Kingston

But the project stalled when the Liberal government announced in February, 2011, that it was placing a moratorium on off-shore wind farms. The moratorium, which the government said is needed to conduct further research on the impact of off-shore developments, remains in effect.

In its action, filed Friday, Trillium says the province deliberately targeted the company, which was on the verge of signing a financing deal for the project when the moratorium was imposed. Trillium’s claims have not been proven in court. The new filing is Trillium’s second round in its fight with the province. It had filed an earlier claim for $2.25 billion. Read article

Court of appeal allows offshore wind claim to proceed on narrow grounds

ontario_superior_court_of_justiceCanadian Energy Law
In March of this year the Ontario Court of Appeal (ONCA) heard Trillium Power Wind Corporation’s (TPWC) appeal from the decision of the Superior Court of Ontario to strike its claim against the province of Ontario.

Earlier this week, the ONCA released its decision in Trillium Power Wind Corporation v Ontario (Ministry of Natural Resources).  TPWC is a Toronto-based developer interested in building offshore wind turbines in Lake Ontario. Its proposed wind power project was progressing under the regulatory structure and had achieved Applicant of Record status when, in February 2011, Ontario cancelled all offshore wind farm projects. In a news release, Ontario explained the projects were cancelled “while further scientific research [was] conducted.”

TPWC subsequently brought numerous claims against Ontario seeking over $2 billion in damages for, among other things, breach of contract, unjust enrichment, negligent misrepresentation and negligence, misfeasance in public office, and intentional infliction of economic harm. Last year, Justice Goldstein of the Ontario Superior Court struck Trillium’s claim on the basis that it disclosed no reasonable cause of action against Ontario. (see our post on that decision here)

The ONCA agreed with Justice Goldstein on all but one of the claims, allowing the appeal on the cause of action alleging misfeasance in public office, but only on the narrower basis that Ontario’s conduct was specifically targeted to injure TPWC. Read article

Environment minister defends offshore ban

Development%20offshore%20wind%20park%20in%20the%20North%20Sea%20(Moniek%20Dotinga)Niagara This Week
A question raised by many people on either side of the wind turbine is why the turbines must be built on land. Offshore wind farms exist in other parts of the world, and in some ways they seem like an ideal solution to the problem of “not in my backyard.” Ontario boasts thousands of kilometres of shoreline along the Great Lakes and elsewhere, much of it thinly settled and not in specific demand for tourism.

More to the point, winds blowing over the Great Lakes tend to be more uniform and constant that those blowing over land. Yet, in early 2011, Ontario declared a moratorium on offshore turbines, citing a need for more research on the environmental and health impacts of offshore farms.

Since that time, various reports have been presented to the government, examining the potential effects of water-based turbines on wildlife, terrain and natural processes. The filed reports provide suggestions to reduce the impact of construction. They conclude that turbines built according to these safe practices would have minimal ongoing impact. Read article

Canadians Asked To Weigh In On Juno Beach Wind Turbine Proposal

junoHuffington Post
TORONTO – For decades visitors to the D-Day beaches on the northwest coast of France have looked out at the English Channel, taking in the journey made by Allied troops that marked a turning point in the Second World War. The view from some of those sites — including Juno Beach where 359 Canadians died — could soon change if a plan succeeds to build an army of wind turbines some 10 kilometres offshore.

Canadians now have a chance to voice their opinions on that plan as a French commission holds public consultations on the project. The body has made it a point to invite people from Canada, the U.S. and Britain to weigh in and notes that even if the project goes ahead, the company building the 75 turbines will work to deal with the issues raised.

The entire turbine proposal rankles at least one Canadian who fought at Juno Beach. “I personally am very much against it,” Roy E. Eddy told The Canadian Press. “I know a number of people have said they don’t agree with me, and I’m not disputing that, but I still say it’s going to be very disrespectful.” The 88-year-old, who last visited Juno Beach three years ago, vividly recalls the bloody battle. Read article

Ontario’s off-shore wind turbine moratorium unresolved two years later

Development%20offshore%20wind%20park%20in%20the%20North%20Sea%20(Moniek%20Dotinga)John Spears, Toronto Star
Two years ago this month, with the 2011 election looming, the Ontario government imposed a moratorium on off-shore wind farms in the province to do “further scientific research.” Which raises the question: The moratorium is still in effect; where’s the research? And did it give off-shore wind farms a thumbs-up or a thumbs-down?

The answers are murky and far from settled. The moratorium has triggered a $2.25 billion lawsuit from one wind power developer, and the issue remains a live one for the new Liberal government under Premier Kathleen Wynne. Off-shore wind farms in the Great Lakes could be a prized asset, since winds over the lakes are often stronger and steadier than on land. But they bring fierce resistance — as a proposal to plant a string of turbines off the Scarborough Bluffs in 2008 showed.

Ontario’s Ministry of Natural Resources has published three reports on the impact of off-shore wind farms since the moratorium began. One looked at the impact of turbines on coastlines, lakebeds, waves and other physical features. Two others looked at the impact on fish and impact on fish. But the reports aren’t conclusive. The report on physical features, for example, outlines further research that might be needed. Read article

Trillium Power Vows To Forge Ahead With Offshore Wind Plans

offshore_windNorth American Windpower
Despite an Ontario judge’s dismissal of the case, Trillium Power is forging ahead with its C$2.25 billion lawsuit against the Ontario government, as the Toronto-based developer says the October 2012 decision contained errors in points of law and evidence.

“The reason that there are appeals courts is that sometimes, judges get it wrong,” John Kourtoff, Trillium’s CEO, tells NAW, adding that he does not anticipate a ruling before June.

The lawsuit centers around the government’s confiscation and cancellation of Trillium’s proposed 600 MW TPW 1 offshore wind project as a result of the provincial government’s February 2011 decision to place a moratorium on offshore wind. The developer says it was planning to install 120 wind turbines on a site 17 km to 28 km offshore in Lake Ontario. (Siting the project further from the shoreline alleviates much of the avian impact, because 93% to 95% of such incidents happen within 1 km of the shore, Kourtoff says.)

According to Trillium, the offshore wind moratorium was issued just one hour before the company was to complete a C$22 million financing deal for the project. Furthermore, Kourtoff says, Trillium’s out-of-pocket expenses for the project total C$5.3 million. Read article

Wind developer files $475 million NAFTA claim over Ontario offshore moratorium

John Spears, The Star
A wind energy company says it wants $475 million in damages because Ontario’s moratorium on offshore wind farms has thwarted its project. Windstream Energy LLC quietly filed a notice last month of its intent to file a claim under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for lost profit.

Windstream wants to develop a 300-megawatt wind project in eastern Lake Ontario, off Wolfe Island. The company says it’s owned by a New York-based investment group. Its Ontario unit, Windstream Energy Inc., is based in Burlington. The Liberal government slapped a moratorium on all offshore projects in February, 2011, saying further study was needed on their impact on health and the environment. It has given no indication when those studies might be completed.

While dozens of projects were affected, Windstream says its Wolfe Island development is exceptional: Unlike most other projects, it holds a renewable power contract, called a feed-in tariff contract or FIT, from the Ontario Power Authority. Read article

Ontario court rules against wind farm suit over moratorium

John Spears, The Star
An Ontario court has struck down a $2.25 billion damage claim brought by a company unhappy with the Ontario government’s decision to halt off-shore wind farms. The company says it will appeal the ruling.

Trillium Wind Power Corp. had launched the action after the province placed a moratorium on offshore wind developments in the run-up to last year’s Ontario election. Trillium had plans for four off-shore wind farms at the time. Trillium said that one of the farms, a big development in Lake Ontario off Kingston was hours from finalizing a $26 million financing agreement when the moratorium was declared. The deal fell apart.

The province had said it needs more time to research the impact of offshore wind farms. The moratorium remains in place.

In his ruling, Mr. Justice Robert Goldstein of the Superior Court of Justice said the province was within its rights in declaring the moratorium.

The province “was empowered to set or alter policy with regard to wind power,” Goldstein wrote. The moratorium, he said, was a “core policy decision.”  “It is clear that the actions of the defendant were not illegal.”

John Kourtoff chef executive of Trillium, said Wednesday that the ruling contains factual errors. He said the company will appeal.

ON court dismisses billion dollar damages claim for offshore wind moratorium

On October 5, 2012, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice struck out an action brought by Trillium Power Wind Corporation (Trillium) against the Ontario government seeking $2.5 billion in damages occasioned by Ontario’s February 2011 moratorium on offshore wind farms.

In Trillium Power Wind Corporation v. Ontario (Natural Resources), on a motion to strike out the action, brought by Ontario, the court ruled that Trillium’s statement of claim (which alleged breach of contract, unjust enrichment, expropriation, negligent misrepresentation, negligence, misfeasance in public office, and intentional infliction of economic harm) failed to disclose a reasonable cause of action and should be struck out, without leave to amend.


Application of the Decision
This decision, especially in light of the Ontario Divisional Court’s decision in Skypower CL I LP v. Minister of Energy, makes it clear that proponents who choose to participate in discretionary government programs, such as Ontario’s renewable energy program, do so at their own risk.  Governments may alter the policies which underlie a program, and may even alter or cancel such programs, in a manner which may be fully lawful and immune from civil suit.  Much will depend upon the particular facts of a case.

Even if the plaintiff can plead a special relationship with government actors which arguably gave rise to a private law duty of care, the duty of care may be negated by the court for reasons of public policy.

Unless participation in the government program has resulted in a legally binding contract, the granting of legally binding approvals to proceed with the project, or clearly unlawful conduct on the part of government (i.e., violation of a statute, or clear malicious intent to harm the plaintiff), it appears unlikely that a program applicant can sue the government simply on the basis that money was spent attempting to meet program criteria.

Courts will recognize the legitimacy of ministerial discretion, including the discretion to impose a moratorium or change a program policy midway through the life of a program, provided the discretion is statutorily authorized and is exercised in good faith.  Despite Trillium’s allegation that the moratoria on offshore wind farm development in this case were made for “purely political” reasons, this decision emphasizes that political factors, such as strong public opposition, are legitimate public policy considerations. As here, the court may conclude that “the remedy for a political decision that a party does not agree with is found in ballot box, not the courtroom.” Read article

Great Lake turbines not such a great idea (-;

Windsor Star

Nature groups warn turbines kill birds

By April Lawrence, Quinte Net News
East region naturalist groups are concerned about the wind turbine developments proposed for Eastern Ontario.

The turbines are proposed to be located in areas of high traffic for migrating birds. Some of these species are considered a species at risk, said Janis Grant, past president of the Kingston Field Naturalists.

Grant said they are concerned with the wind turbines proposed for Amherst Island and offshore near Main Duck Island.

Over the summer the Kingston field naturalists prepared a report addressing the potential affects of offshore wind turbines on migratory bird populations said Grant. The turbines offshore at Main Duck Island would be in the way of migrating birds some of which are considered endangered species.

“Our results show that about 2.5 birds are killed a year by individual wind turbines, so at that type of level wind power projects are not a sustainability concern for Ontario’s bird populations,” said Jolanta Kowalski, senior media relations officer for the Ministry of Natural Resources. “For example millions of birds are killed across North America by running into buildings every year. It’s a much, much greater risk to bird populations.”  Read article

‘A big bird kill’

By Paul Schliesmann, Kingston Whig-Standard

KINGSTON – An estimated 12 million migratory birds will be put at risk if two large offshore wind turbine projects are built in Lake Ontario, according to a report released this week by the Kingston Field Naturalists. Three members of the volunteer organization who conducted a year-long, unpaid study are particularly concerned about two offshore projects that would see the a total of 268 turbines planted to the north and south of Main Duck Island, a natural stopping off point for hundreds of species.

“We think 12 million is low because it’s based on birds being studied at Prince Edward Point. The ones which don’t stop at Prince Edward Point aren’t being included yet,” said Chris Hargreaves, who worked on the report with Erwin Batalla and Barrie Gilbert.

The section of Lake Ontario from Prince Edward County to Wolfe Island is an acknowledged migratory flyway for 300 species of birds heading to U.S. wintering grounds and returning to Canada in the spring to nest.

The naturalists are especially concerned about the array of existing and proposed turbine projects that, if all completed, would create a deadly obstacle course of more than 1,000 turbines stretching from New York state to eastern Ontario.  They want to see more in-depth studies completed before further work goes ahead.

“Why would we go ahead with the industrialization of the Great Lakes without studies?” said Gilbert, a retired biology professor and lead researcher who has returned to Kingston after years of teaching in the U.S. “These are not windmills. This is not a wind farm. They’re industrial wind turbines.”  read more


Wind “wanna-be developer” files $1-billion lawsuit against Ontario

CBC News
Ontario’s Liberal government is facing a $1-billion lawsuit for imposing a moratorium on offshore wind farms.  Southpoint Wind filed suit in Ontario Superior Court of Justice in Windsor, Ont., claiming damages for the confiscation of its property and reimbursement of its costs. The company tried to develop wind power projects near the communities of Leamington, Union and Kingsville before the government announced a moratorium on offshore wind farms in February 2011. Continue reading

Obama administration, 5 states reach deal to quicken approval of wind farms in Great Lakes

Washington Post
TRAVERSE CITY, Mich. — The Obama administration and five states have reached an agreement to speed up approval of offshore wind farms in the Great Lakes, which have been delayed by cost concerns and public opposition.  Under the deal, which administration officials disclosed to The Associated Press ahead of an announcement scheduled for Friday, state and federal agencies will craft a blueprint for speeding regulatory review of proposed wind farms. Read article

Port Colborne cautious about offshore wind

by Luke Edwards, Niagara This Week
Coun. Dave Elliott doesn’t want council to blindly support an offshore wind energy project in Lake Ontario.  “Before we support this, let’s see both sides,” he told council on Monday.  Elliott was referring to an item in the agenda that would throw support behind a consortium called Lake Ontario Offshore Network (LOON), which plans to build around 100 turbines 5 km off the cost of Lake Ontario.  The consortium approached the city to “encourage the Ontario government to remove the roadblocks to allow the development of offshore wind power in Ontario,” the motion said. Continue reading

Don’t make Wolfe Islanders test subjects

The Whig
The story “Firm offers to be test subject for wind projects” (Jan. 26) reminded me of a funny story. A man is asked by police to be a decoy in a sting operation. He’s told it may be dangerous so they give him a bullet-proof vest. The man is shot and saved by the vest. His friend remarks, “That was brave of you, but dumb. What if they had shot you in the face?” The police officer pipes up, “Sir, that was a risk we were willing to take!” Continue reading

Firm offers to be test subject for wind projects

By Peter Hendra, The Whig-Standard
If the Ontario government wants to study the effects of offshore wind projects before it lifts its moratorium on them, Windstream Energy Inc. boss Ian Baines says he knows of a suitable test subject — his company’s proposed Wolfe Island shoals project.  “The government, as we understand it, wants the moratorium to remain in place so they can study the science,” Baines offered Wednesday, “but they have to have an actual project to study. 

“We’re offering our project.” Read article

Questions swirl over Ontario offshore wind power generation projects

Vic Fedeli

by Kelly Lapointe, Daily Commercial News
Recent news reports about the Windstream Wolfe Island Shoals offshore wind project in Lake Ontario have spurred concerns from the province’s Progressive Conservative energy critic. In February 2011, the province announced a moratorium on offshore wind projects to wait for scientific research to be conducted. Potential issues include how noise behaves over water and ice, foundation designs, water quality impacts and impacts to shoreline ecosystems and wildlife. Read article

Does Windstream have insider government information?

CTV News  — Windstream Wolfe Island Shoals has signed a deal with Siemens Canada to supply up to 130 turbines for a 300-megawatt offshore wind power project on Lake Ontario.  The turbine blades will be manufactured at Siemens’ renewable energy plant in Tillsonburg, Ont.  Windstream says the project will be located between five and 16 kilometres off the southwest shore of Wolfe Island, in eastern Lake Ontario.  Windstream says selecting Siemens guarantees the Wolfe Island Shoals project will contain more than 50 per cent Ontario content. Continue reading

Scarborough Bluffs Anemometer to remain until 2012

by David Nickle, InsideToronto.com
The anemometer that Toronto Hydro has been using to test wind levels off the Scarborough Bluffs will remain there until the fall of 2012, over the objections of local residents who want the device out of the lake as soon as possible.  That was the recommendation from Toronto’s executive committee Tuesday, Nov. 1, who was considering a proposal to stop the two-year research project a couple of months earlier. Read article

No deadline for wind studies

by John Spears, Toronto Star
Ontario bureaucrats have been given “no firm deadline” for reporting on the possible health effects of offshore wind turbines, says the Ministry of Natural Resources.  But it says one of the studies will take up to three years. The province is facing a $2.25 billion lawsuit from a wind power developer after it slapped an indefinite moratorium on offshore wind power developments in February. Continue reading

Offshore wind farm still on books, despite ban

by Richard Blackwell, Globe and Mail
The one company that holds a signed contract to build a wind farm in the Great Lakes is going ahead with plans for the project, despite the ban on offshore wind development put in place by the Ontario government earlier this year. Windstream Energy Inc. says it could begin construction at a proposed wind farm in Lake Ontario near Kingston as early as 2014, if the province lifts its ban soon. The 300-megawatt wind farm would have as many as 100 turbines, anchored in the lakebed five kilometres off shore.  Read article

GreenView: Ontario cancels off-shore wind projects. Good

by Krystyn Tully, Waterkeeper.ca Weekly

There will be no off-shore wind projects in Ontario any time soon. Off-shore wind farms are built in the water – in Ontario, this generally means in the Great Lakes and especially in Lake Ontario. Before the decision to halt off-shore wind development, you could have expected to see as many as 400 wind turbines dotting the shoreline from Toronto to Kingston. The Ontario government has changed its mind about off-shore wind and has decided to do more research on the environmental effects of the turbines. We know this will make us unpopular with the environmental crowd, but we need to say this: the decision is the right one. Continue reading

Carol Mitchell is suddenly “anti-wind” (just offshore though)

Offshore wind is off the table

A press release from Huron-Perth MPP Carol Mitchell applauded the news that no offshore wind projects will be located on Lake Huron “as Ontario is not proceeding with proposed offshore wind projects while further scientific research is conducted.”

By Susan Hundertmark, Clinton News Record

An announcement Friday afternoon that the provincial government will not be proceeding with offshore wind projects, including the 12 offshore wind applications in Lake Huron made in 2008 by three companies, was greeted with cynicism by a local anti-wind group. Continue reading

Ian and Nancy Baines fall on hard times

Ian Baines, Wolfe Island developer

Couple blown away
By Paul Schliesmann, Whig Standard

Opponents and supporters of the $1.35-billion wind turbine project in Lake Ontario off Kingston agree its cancellation last week by the provincial government was a purely political decision.

“It has nothing to do with science and it has everything to do with an election year and they’re afraid of losing votes,” said Jeff Garrah, CAO of the Kingston Economic Development Corporation.

Late Friday afternoon, a press release from the office of Premier Dalton McGuinty announced the application for Windstream Wolfe Island Shoals Inc. would be “suspended” while “further scientific research is conducted.” Continue reading