Exo, K.-M., Hüppop, O. & Garthe, S. 2003. Birds and offshore wind farms: a hot topic in marine ecology. Wader Study Group Bull. 100:50–53.
Following are a few exerpts from the concluding section:
“Based on experience gained from studies at inland wind facilities and at the few near-shore sites where environmental impact assessments are currently under way (in total 10 wind farms worldwide, British Wind Energy Association, BWEA 2002: www.offshorewindfarms.co.uk/else.html), we conclude that marine wind farms could have a significant adverse effect on resident seabirds and other coastal birds as well as migrants. Moreover, the potential impacts may be considerable higher offshore than onshore. Disturbance and barrier effects probably constitute the highest conflict potential.”
“It is unacceptable to erect wind farms inside or close to IBAs [Important Bird Areas] or marine protected areas.”